a This is the 2009 annual average in current prices of the Exports of Goods and Services/ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at market price expressed as a percentage.
b Emissions are measured by carbon dioxide equivalent sources excluding land use, land-use change and forestry.
c In its 2006 Power Generation in Canada guide, the Canadian Electricity Association states that Canada’s hydroelectric sector represents 58% of total generation.
d In its 2010 analysis of Nuclear Power in France, the World Nuclear Association suggests that over 75% of France’s electricity supply is derived from nuclear energy.
e Excludes most of all capital expenditure.
f This was based on a 20% reduction in GHG emissions by 2020 from 2006 levels.
g Since China qualifies as an Annex II country as per the UNFCCC, the data for CO2e emissions excluding LULUCF was not available for 2007. The latest available year was 1994, in this year, China’s carbon productivity was 0.14.
h According to the Norwegian National Allocation Plan for the Emissions Trading System (ETS) in 2008–2012, Norway will participate in ETS alongside its national carbon tax system. The inclusion of the ETS will mean a reduction on the carbon price for offshore sectors, and an overall broadening of Norway’s carbon coverage. The overall effect will be an even larger carbon coverage for Norway.
i Although the LCPI is a benchmarking exercise primarily across the G8 data was collected for three additional countries: Australia, China, and Norway. Their performance in the benchmarked metrics is not calculated into the index. Rather, the individual countries’ performance in particular metrics is used as a comparator to support or refute Canada’s relative performance and position.
j Typically, a metric is compiled for each country in the G8. In a few instances, data did not exist to compile a metric. Rather than artificially impute a zero for that country, the metric is left blank and excluded from future calculations. In those circumstances, the
other countries are still normalized to a score between 0 and 100 but the sub-sample of countries is reduced by the excluded country (i.e., ranking of the G8 in that metric is actually only seven countries, with the country with the missing data excluded).
1 Innovas Solutions Ltd. quoted, “The global market value of the LCEGS sector was £3,046 billion in 2007/8.” The conversion of £3,046 billion at the average exchange rate for 2007 and 2008 in Canadian currency is 2.55 to 1 United Kingdom Pound. (Source: Bank of Canada Annual Average for 2007 and 2008)
2 Innovas, Low-carbon and Environmental Goods and Services: an industry analysis. (Cheshire: Innovas Solutions Ltd., 2009).
3 Statistics Canada, National Economic Accounts - CANSIM table 380-0002. (2010). Table Assessed March 2, 2010, from http://cansim2.statcan.gc.ca/cgi-win/cnsmcgi.pgm
4 Competition Policy Review Panel, Compete to Win, p. v. (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 2008).
5 World Economic Forum, The Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010. (Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2009).
6 The Climate Institute and E3G, G20 low carbon competitiveness. (2009). Available at http://www.e3g.org/ images/uploads/G20_Low_Carbon_Competitiveness_Report.pdf
7 World Wildlife Fund and Allianz, G8 Climate Scorecards 2009. (2009). Available at http://www.worldwildlife. org/climate/Publications/WWFBinaryitem12911.pdfG8
8 E3G and the World Wildlife Fund, Scorecards on best and worst policies for a green new deal. (Ecofys/Germanwatch, 2009). Available at http://www.wwf.org.au/publications/scorecards2009/
9 J. De Lima and V. Sumon, Climate Change – September annual index review: Climate revenues – an industrial reality. (London: HSBC Global Research, 2009).
10 Ernst & Young, Renewable energy country attractiveness indices. (2008). Available at http://www.eoyaward. com/GL/en/Industries/Oil---Gas/Oil_Gas_Renewable_Energy_Attractiveness-Indices.
11 Next 10, California Green Innovation Index. (2008). Available at http://www.next10.org/environment/ greenInnovation08.html
12 RICS, Global Zero Carbon Capacity Index. (Coventry, U.K.: RICS and UCL Environment Institute, 2009).
13 J. Emerson, et al., 2010 Environmental Performance Index. (New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, 2010).
14 Dow Jones Indexes, STOXX Ltd., and SAM Group, Dow Jones Sustainability World Indexes Guide (2009).
15 Compete to Win, p. 22.
16 Compete to Win.
17 Science, Technology and Innovation Council, State of the Nation 2008: Canada’s Science, Technology and Innovation System. (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 2009).
18 Council of Canadian Academies, Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short. (Ottawa, Council of Canadian Academies, 2009).
19 World Development Indicators, GDP (current US$), Population, total 1990–2008. Accessed October 2009 from http://go.worldbank.org/4C55Z0H7Z0
20 NRTEE (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy), Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada. (Ottawa: NRTEE, 2009).
21 IISD (International Institute for Sustainable Development), Embodied Carbon in Traded Goods (2008).
22 IISD, Embodied Carbon in Traded Goods
23 G. Peters and E. Hertwich, “CO2 Embodied in International Trade with Implications for Global Climate Policy,” in Environmental Science and Technology, 42(5), pp. 1401–1407.
25 G. Atkinson, K. Hamilton, G. Ruta, and D. van der Mensbrugghe, “Trade in ‘Virtual Carbon’: Empirical Results and Implications for Policy.” Background paper for the WDR 2010. (2009)
26 World Economic Forum, The Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010, p.7.
27 A. Dechezlepretre et al., Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data. (Paris: Centre of Industrial Economics at Mines ParisTech, 2008).
28 Lord Sainsbury of Turville (Stainsbury Review), The Race to the Top: A Review of Government’s Science and Innovation Policies. (Norwich: Her Majesty’s Government, 2007). Available at http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/ corporate/
29 A. Dechezlepretre et al., Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data, 5.
30 Ogilvy Renault, “Patenting Clean Technologies: Trends, Issues and Strategies.” (2010). Available at http://www. ogilvyrenault.com/en/resourceCentre_10025.htm
32 Kevin Lynch, “Canada’s Innovation Deficit” in Policy Options: March 2010.
33 IEA (International Energy Agency), Global Gaps in Clean Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration. (Paris: OECD/IEA, 2009).
34 Council of Canadian Academies, Innovation and Business Strategy: Why Canada Falls Short. (Ottawa: Council of Canadian Academies, 2009).
35 Conference Board of Canada, “How Canada Performs: A Report Card on Canada.” (2009–2010). Assessed on February 12, 2010, from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/HCP/default.aspx
36 Government of Canada, Canada’s Economic Action Plan, Year 2. Budget 2010: Leading the Way on Jobs and Growth. (2010). Available at http://www.budget.gc.ca/2010/pdf/budget-planbudgetaire-eng.pdf
37 HM Government (Her Majesty’s Government). The U.K. Low-carbon Industrial Strategy. (UK: HM Government, 2009).
38 HM Government. The U.K. Low-carbon Transition Plan: National strategy for climate and energy. (UK: HM Government, 2009).
39 CBI, “Low-carbon Innovation: Developing Technologies for the Future,” (UK: CBI, 2009), 5.
40 Aldersgate Group, Mind the Gap: Skills for the Transition to a Low-carbon Economy, (London: Aldersgate Group, 2009), 1.
41 The Aspen Institute, Aspen’s Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009–2010. (2009). Accessed on January 28, 2010 from http://www.beyondgreypinstripes.org/pdf/2009-2010BGP_Brochure.pdf
42 Ernst & Young (2008). Comparative advantage and green business. (London: Ernst & Young LLP, 2008)
43 Huddleston, Matt and Eggen, Bernd (2007). Climate change adaptation for UK businesses – A Report for the CBI Task Force on Climate Change. Met Office.
44 Aldersgate Group, Mind the Gap: Skills for the Transition to a Low-carbon Economy, 1.
45 Ibid, 6.
46 IEA, World Energy Outlook (2008).
47 The Breakthrough Institute, Rising Tigers, Sleeping Giant. (The Breakthrough Institute, 2009). Available at http://thebreakthrough.org/blog/2009/11/rising_tigers_sleeping_giant_o.shtml
48 J. De Lima and V. Sumon, Climate Change – September annual index review: Climate revenues – an industrial reality.
49 NRTEE, Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada.
50 Financial Post, “TSX carving a niche in clean technology sector.” (November 12, 2009)Accessed on January 14, 2010 from http://www.ottawacitizen.com/business/fp/carving+niche+clean+
51 Deutsche Bank, Global Climate Change Policy Tracker: An Investor’s Assessment (New York, Deutsche Bank Group, 2009). Available at http://www.dbcca.com/dbcca/EN/investment-research/investment_research_1780.jsp
52 Cleantech Group, “Cleantech definition.” (2010). Accessed on January 14, 2010, from http://cleantech.com/ about/cleantechdefinition.cfm
53 P. Burtis, Creating Cleantech Clusters: 2006 Update – How Innovation and Investment Can Promote Job Growth and a Healthy Environment. (Cleantech Venture Network LLC, 2006).
54 Alex Bowen, Samuel Fankhauser, Nicholas Stern, and Dimitri Zenghelis, “An outline of the case for a ‘green’ stimulus,” in Policy Brief, February 2009. (London: The Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, 2009). Available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/granthamInstitute/publications/An%20outline% 20of%20the%20case%20for%20a%20%27green%27%20stimulus%20-%20low%20res.pdf
55 Project Catalyst, Low-carbon Growth Plans: Advancing Good Practice, August 2009, 6. Available at http://www. project-catalyst.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=93&Itemid=75
57 HM Government, The U.K. Low-carbon Transition Plan: National strategy for climate and energy.
58 Project Catalyst, Low-carbon Growth Plans: Advancing Good Practice, August 2009.
59 NRTEE, Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada.
61 BBC News, China unveils emissions targets ahead of Copenhagen. (2009). Accessed on November 30, 2009, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8380106.stm
62 HSBC, A Climate for Recovery: The colour of stimulus goes green. (London: HSBC Bank, 2009).
63 Project Catalyst, Low-carbon Growth Plans: Advancing Good Practice, August 2009.
64 US Energy Information Administration. “Norway Energy Profile.” Accessed on January 22, 2010 at http://tonto. eia.doe.gov/country/country_energy_data.cfm?fips=NO